This view of the back shows some severe cracks that I repaired. Because the grains of the two woods run in the same direction (unlike most plywood, where the grain of each ply runs against it's neighbor), this kind of cracking was pretty much inevitable. This close-up shows the cone-shaped heel which is also typical of European guitars from this period. Some of the early guitars of CF Martin (who was a German immigrant) exhibit this kind of construction. The squared-off peg head is typical of English, French and German guitars made "in the Spanish style" as it was termed. Conversely, the Spanish guitars themselves usually had some kind of carved flourish at the top. The tuners are solid brass with riveted gears. The knobs are real ivory. This guitar is in excellent playing shape. It has a bright yet mellow tone with great bass response and is quite loud, even strung with gut strings (or their modern equivelent - black nylon).